IGRT

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Brain Tumors

Overview:
When most normal cells grow old or get damaged, they die, and new cells take their place. Sometimes, this process goes wrong. New cells form when the body doesn't need them, and old or damaged cells don't die as they should. The buildup of extra cells often forms a mass of tissue called a growth or tumor.

Primary brain tumors can be benign or malignant:

  • Benign brain tumors do not contain cancer cells:
    • Usually, benign tumors can be removed, and they seldom grow back.
    • Benign brain tumors usually have an obvious border or edge. Cells from benign tumors rarely invade tissues around them. They don't spread to other parts of the body. However, benign tumors can press on sensitive areas of the brain and cause serious health problems.
    • Unlike benign tumors in most other parts of the body, benign brain tumors are sometimes life threatening.
    • Benign brain tumors may become malignant.
  • Malignant brain tumors (also called brain cancer) contain cancer cells:
    • Malignant brain tumors are generally more serious and often are a threat to life.
    • They are likely to grow rapidly and crowd or invade the nearby healthy brain tissue.
    • Cancer cells may break away from malignant brain tumors and spread to other parts of the brain or to the spinal cord. They rarely spread to other parts of the body.

Signs and symptoms of brain tumors:
The symptoms of a brain tumor depend on tumor size, type, and location. Symptoms may be caused when a tumor presses on a nerve or harms a part of the brain. Also, they may be caused when a tumor blocks the fluid that flows through and around the brain, or when the brain swells because of the buildup of fluid.

These are the most common symptoms of brain tumors:

  • Headaches (usually worse in the morning)
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Changes in speech, vision, or hearing
  • Problems balancing or walking
  • Changes in mood, personality, or ability to concentrate
  • Problems with memory
  • Muscle jerking or twitching (seizures or convulsions)
  • Numbness or tingling in the arms or legs

Most often, these symptoms are not due to a brain tumor. Another health problem could cause them. If you have any of these symptoms, you should tell your doctor so that problems can be diagnosed and treated.

Risk factors for brain tumors:
Studies have found the following risk factors for brain tumors:

  • Ionizing radiation: Ionizing radiation from high dose x-rays (such as radiation therapy from a large machine aimed at the head) and other sources can cause cell damage that leads to a tumor. People exposed to ionizing radiation may have an increased risk of a brain tumor, such as meningioma or glioma.
  • Family history: It is rare for brain tumors to run in a family. Only a very small number of families have several members with brain tumors.

Treatment
People with brain tumors have several treatment options. The options are surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Many people get a combination of treatments.

The choice of treatment depends mainly on the following:

  • The type and grade of brain tumor
  • Its location in the brain
  • Its size
  • Your age and general health

For some types of brain cancer, the doctor also needs to know whether cancer cells were found in the cerebrospinal fluid.

Contact us for a consultation to discuss the best potential treatment option.

More information can be found on the National Cancer Institute website.

Breast Cancer

Overview
Cancer that forms in tissues of the breast, usually the ducts (tubes that carry milk to the nipple) and lobules (glands that make milk). It occurs in both men and women, although male breast cancer is rare.

Signs and symptoms of breast cancer

  • A change in how the breast or nipple feels
    • A lump or thickening in or near the breast or in the underarm area
    • Nipple tenderness
  • A change in how the breast or nipple looks
    • A change in the size or shape of the breast
    • A nipple turned inward into the breast
    • The skin of the breast, areola, or nipple may be scaly, red, or swollen. It may have ridges or pitting so that it looks like the skin of an orange.
  • Nipple discharge (fluid)

Risk factors for breast cancer

  • Age: The chance of getting breast cancer goes up as a woman gets older. Most cases of breast cancer occur in women over 60. This disease is not common before menopause.
  • Personal history of breast cancer: A woman who had breast cancer in one breast has an increased risk of getting cancer in her other breast.
  • Family history: A woman's risk of breast cancer is higher if her mother, sister,or daughter had breast cancer. The risk is higher if her family member got breast cancer before age 40. Having other relatives with breast cancer (in either her mother's or father's family) may also increase a woman's risk.
  • Certain breast changes: Some women have cells in the breast that look abnormal under a microscope. Having certain types of abnormal cells (atypicalhyperplasia and lobular carcinoma in situ [LCIS]) increases the risk of breast cancer.
  • Gene changes: Changes in certain genes increase the risk of breast cancer. These genes include BRCA1, BRCA2, and others. Tests can sometimes show the presence of specific gene changes in families with many women who have had breast cancer. Health care providers may suggest ways to try to reduce the risk of breast cancer, or to improve the detection of this disease in women who have these changes in their genes. NCI offers publications on gene testing.
  • Reproductive and menstrual history:
  • The older a woman is when she has her first child, the greater her chance of breast cancer.
  • Women who had their first menstrual period before age 12 are at an increased risk of breast cancer.
  • Women who went through menopause after age 55 are at an increased risk of breast cancer.
  • Women who never had children are at an increased risk of breast cancer.
  • Women who take menopausal hormone therapy with estrogen plus progestin after menopause also appear to have an increased risk of breast cancer.
  • Race: Breast cancer is diagnosed more often in white women than Latina, Asian, or African American women.
  • Radiation therapy to the chest: Women who had radiation therapy to the chest (including breasts) before age 30 are at an increased risk of breast cancer. This includes women treated with radiation for Hodgkin's lymphoma. Studies show that the younger a woman was when she received radiation treatment, the higher her risk of breast cancer later in life.
  • Breast density: Breast tissue may be dense or fatty. Older women whose mammograms (breast x-rays) show more dense tissue are at increased risk of breast cancer.
  • Taking DES (diethylstilbestrol): DES was given to some pregnant women in the United States between about 1940 and 1971. (It is no longer given to pregnant women.) Women who took DES during pregnancy may have a slightly increased risk of breast cancer. The possible effects on their daughters are under study.
  • Being overweight or obese after menopause: The chance of getting breast cancer after menopause is higher in women who are overweight or obese.
  • Lack of physical activity: Women who are physically inactive throughout life may have an increased risk of breast cancer. Being active may help reduce risk by preventing weight gain and obesity.
  • Drinking alcohol: Studies suggest that the more alcohol a woman drinks, the greater her risk of breast cancer.

Treatment
Women with breast cancer have many treatment options. These include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and biological therapy. Many women receive more than one type of treatment.

Cancer treatment is either local therapy or systemic therapy:

  • Local therapy: Surgery and radiation therapy are local treatments. They remove or destroy cancer in the breast. When breast cancer has spread to other parts of the body, local therapy may be used to control the disease in those spcific areas.
  • Systemic therapy: Chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and biological therapy are systemic treatments. They enter the bloodstream and destroy or control cancer throughout the body. Some women with breast cancer have systemic therapy to shrink the tumor before surgery or radiation. Others have systemic therapy after surgery and/or radiation to prevent the cancer from coming back. Systemic treatments also are used for cancer that has spread.

Contact us for a consultation to discuss the best potential treatment option.

More information can be found on the National Cancer Institute website.

Cervical Cancer

Overview
Cervical cancer begins in cells on the surface of the cervix. Over time, the cervical cancer can invade more deeply into the cervix and nearby tissues. The cancer cells can spread by breaking away from the original (primary) tumor. They enter blood vessels or lymph vessels, which branch into all the tissues of the body. The cancer cells may attach to other tissues and grow to form new tumors that may damage those tissues. The spread of cancer is called metastasis. See the Staging section for information about cervical cancer that has spread.

  • Benign growths (polyps, cysts, or genital warts):
    • Are rarely a threat to life
    • Don't invade the tissues around them
  • Malignant growths (cervical cancer):
    • May sometimes be a threat to life
    • Can invade nearby tissues and organs
    • Can spread to other parts of the body

Signs and symptoms of cervical cancer
Early cervical cancers usually don't cause symptoms. When the cancer grows larger, women may notice one or more of these symptoms:

  • Abnormal vaginal bleeding
    • Bleeding that occurs between regular menstrual periods
    • Bleeding after sexual intercourse, douching, or a pelvic exam
    • Menstrual periods that last longer and are heavier than before
    • Bleeding after going through menopause
  • Increased vaginal discharge
    • Pelvic pain
    • Pain during sex

Infections or other health problems may also cause these symptoms. Only a doctor can tell for sure. A woman with any of these symptoms should tell her doctor so that problems can be diagnosed and treated as early as possible.

Risk factors for cervical cancer
Studies have found a number of factors that may increase the risk of cervical cancer. For example, infection with HPV (human papillomavirus) is the main cause of cervical cancer. HPV infection and other risk factors may act together to increase the risk even more:

  • HPVinfection: HPV is a group of viruses that can infect the cervix. An HPV infection that doesn't go away can cause cervical cancer in some women. HPV is the cause of nearly all cervical cancers. HPV infections are very common. These viruses are passed from person to person through sexual contact. Most adults have been infected with HPV at some time in their lives, but most infections clear up on their own. Some types of HPV can cause changes to cells in the cervix. If these changes are found early, cervical cancer can be prevented by removing or killing the changed cells before they can become cancer cells.
  • Lack of regular Pap tests: Cervical cancer is more common among women who don't have regular Pap tests. The Pap test helps doctors find abnormal cells.Removing or killing the abnormal cells usually prevents cervical cancer.
  • Smoking: Among women who are infected with HPV, smoking cigarettes slightly increases the risk of cervical cancer.
  • Weakened immune system (the body's natural defense system): Infection with HIV (the virus that causes AIDS) or taking drugs that suppress the immune system increases the risk of cervical cancer.
  • Sexual history: Women who have had many sexual partners have a higher risk of developing cervical cancer. Also, a woman who has had sex with a man who has had many sexual partners may be at higher risk of developing cervical cancer. In both cases, the risk of developing cervical cancer is higher because these women have a higher risk of HPV infection.
  • Using birth control pills for a long time: Using birth control pills for a long time (5 or more years) may slightly increase the risk of cervical cancer among women with HPV infection. However, the risk decreases quickly when women stop using birth control pills.
  • Having many children: Studies suggest that giving birth to many children (5 or more) may slightly increase the risk of cervical cancer among women with HPV infection.
  • DES (diethylstilbestrol): DES may increase the risk of a rare form of cervical cancer in daughters exposed to this drug before birth. DES was given to some pregnant women in the United States between about 1940 and 1971. (It is no longer given to pregnant women.)

Having an HPV infection or other risk factors does not mean that a woman will develop cervical cancer. Most women who have risk factors for cervical cancer never develop it.

Treatment
Women with cervical cancer have many treatment options. The options are surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of methods.

The choice of treatment depends mainly on the size of the tumor and whether the cancer has spread. The treatment choice may also depend on whether you would like to become pregnant someday.

Your doctor can describe your treatment choices, the expected results of each, and the possible side effects. You and your doctor can work together to develop a treatment plan that meets your medical and personal needs.

Before treatment starts, ask your health care team about possible side effects and how treatment may change your normal activities. Because cancer treatments often damage healthy cells and tissues, side effects are common. Side effects may not be the same for each person, and they may change from one treatment session to the next.

Contact us for a consultation to discuss the best potential treatment option.

More information can be found on the National Cancer Institute website.

Head, Neck & Face Cancers

Overview
Most head and neck cancers begin in the cells that line the mucosal surfaces in the head and neck area, e.g., mouth, nose, and throat. Mucosal surfaces are moist tissues lining hollow organs and cavities of the body open to the environment. Normal mucosal cells look like scales (squamous) under the microscope, so head and neck cancers are often referred to as squamous cell carcinomas. Some head and neck cancers begin in other types of cells. For example, cancers that begin in glandular cells are called adenocarcinomas.

Cancers of the head and neck are classified by the area where they originate, which include the oral cavity, salivary glands, paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx and lymph nodes.

Signs and symptoms of head, neck and face cancers:
Symptoms of several head and neck cancer sites include a lump or sore that does not heal, a sore throat that does not go away, difficulty swallowing, and a change or hoarseness in the voice. Other symptoms may include the following:

Oral cavity: A white or red patch on the gums, tongue, or lining of the mouth; a swelling of the jaw that causes dentures to fit poorly or become uncomfortable; any unusual bleeding or pain in the mouth

Nasal cavity and sinuses: Sinuses that are blocked and do not clear; chronic sinus infections that do not respond to treatment with antibiotics; bleeding through the nose; frequent headaches; swelling or other trouble with the eyes; pain in the upper teeth or problems with dentures

Salivary glands: Swelling under the chin or around the jawbone; numbness or paralysis of the muscles in the face; pain that does not go away in the face, chin, or neck

Oropharynx and hypopharynx: Ear pain; hoarseness; difficulty swallowing; change in voice quality

Nasopharynx: Trouble breathing or speaking; frequent headaches; pain or ringing in the ears; trouble hearing; nosebleeds

Larynx: Pain when swallowing; ear pain; hoarseness or raspy voice

In addition to some of the local symptoms, cancers of the head and neck can spread to the lymph nodes in the neck, and patients can present with swelling or a lump in the neck.

Risk factors for head, neck and face cancers:
Tobacco and alcohol use: Tobacco (including smokeless tobacco, also known as “chewing tobacco” or “snuff”) and alcohol use are the most important risk factors for head and neck cancers, particularly those of the oral cavity, pharynx and larynx. Eighty-five percent of head and neck cancers are linked to tobacco use. People who use both tobacco and alcohol are at greater risk for developing these cancers than people who use either tobacco or alcohol alone.

Other risk factors by area of origin:
Oral cavity: Sun exposure of the lip

Salivary glands: Radiation to the head and neck. This exposure can come from diagnostic x-rays or from radiation therapy for noncancerous conditions or cancer.

Paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity: Certain industrial exposures, such as wood or nickel dust inhalation

Nasopharynx: Asian, particularly Chinese, ancestry; Epstein-Barr virus infection; occupational exposure to wood dust; consumption of certain preservatives or salted foods

Oropharynx: Poor oral hygiene

Hypopharynx: Plummer-Vinson (also called Paterson-Kelly) syndrome, a rare disorder that results from iron and other nutritional deficiencies. This syndrome is characterized by severe anemia and leads to difficulty swallowing due to webs of tissue that grow across the upper part of the esophagus.

Larynx: Exposure to airborne particles of asbestos, especially in the workplace.

Treatment:
The treatment plan for an individual patient depends on a number of factors, including the exact location of the tumor, the stage of the cancer, and the person's age and general health. The patient and the doctor should consider treatment options carefully. They should discuss each type of treatment and how it might change the way the patient looks, talks, eats, or breathes.

Contact us for a consultation to discuss the best potential treatment option.

More information can be found on the National Cancer Institute website.

Lung Cancer

Overview
Lung cancer is cancer that forms in tissues of the lung, usually in the cells lining air passages. The two main types are small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer. These types are diagnosed based on how the cells look under a microscope. The types of lung cancer are treated differently.

Small cell lung cancer is an aggressive (fast-growing) cancer that forms in tissues of the lung and can spread to other parts of the body. The cancer cells look small and oval-shaped when looked at under a microscope. About 13 percent of lung cancers are small cell lung cancers.

Non-small cell lung cancer is a group of lung cancers that are named for the kinds of cells found in the cancer and how the cells look under a microscope. The three main types of non-small cell lung cancer are squamous cell carcinoma, large cell carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma. Most lung cancers (about 87 percent) are non-small cell lung cancers. This type spreads more slowly than small cell lung cancer.

Signs and symptoms for lung cancer:
Early lung cancer often does not cause symptoms. But as the cancer grows, common symptoms may include:

  • A cough that gets worse or does not go away
  • Breathing trouble, such as shortness of breath
  • Constant chest pain
  • Coughing up blood
  • A hoarse voice
  • Frequent lung infections, such as pneumonia
  • Feeling very tired all the time
  • Weight loss with no known cause

Risk factors for lung cancer
Tobacco smoke: Tobacco smoke causes most cases of lung cancer. It's by far the most important risk factor for lung cancer. Harmful substances in smoke damage lung cells. That's why smoking cigarettes, pipes, or cigars can cause lung cancer and why secondhand smoke can cause lung cancer in nonsmokers. The more a person is exposed to smoke, the greater the risk of lung cancer.

Radon: Radon is a radioactive gas that you cannot see, smell, or taste. It forms in soil and rocks. People who work in mines may be exposed to radon. In some parts of the country, radon is found in houses. Radon damages lung cells, and people exposed to radon are at increased risk of lung cancer. The risk of lung cancer from radon is even higher for smokers.

Asbestos and other substances: People who have certain jobs (such as those who work in the construction and chemical industries) have an increased risk of lung cancer. Exposure to asbestos, arsenic, chromium, nickel, soot, tar, and other substances can cause lung cancer. The risk is highest for those with years of exposure. The risk of lung cancer from these substances is even higher for smokers.

Air pollution: Air pollution may slightly increase the risk of lung cancer. The risk from air pollution is higher for smokers.

Family history of lung cancer: People with a father, mother, brother, or sister who had lung cancer may be at slightly increased risk of the disease, even if they don't smoke.

Personal history of lung cancer: People who have had lung cancer are at increased risk of developing a second lung tumor.

Age over 65: Most people are older than 65 years when diagnosed with lung cancer.

Treatment
The choice of treatment depends mainly on the type of lung cancer and its stage. People with lung cancer may have surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of treatments.
The prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options depend on the following:

  • The stage of the cancer (the size of the tumor and whether it is in the lung only or has spread to other places in the body).
  • The type of lung cancer.
  • Whether there are symptoms such as coughing or trouble breathing.
  • The patient’s general health.

Contact us for a consultation to discuss the best potential treatment option.

More information can be found on the National Cancer Institute website.

Pancreatic Cancer

Overview
Pancreatic cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells are found in the tissues of the pancreas. Most pancreatic cancers begin in the ducts that carry pancreatic juices. Cancer of the pancreas may be called pancreatic cancer or carcinoma of the pancreas.

A rare type of pancreatic cancer begins in the cells that make insulin and other hormones. Cancer that begins in these cells is called islet cell cancer. This booklet does not deal with this rare disease. The Cancer Information Service (1-800-4-CANCER) can provide information about islet cell cancer.

When cancer of the pancreas spreads (metastasizes) outside the pancreas, cancer cells are often found in nearby lymph nodes. If the cancer has reached these nodes, it means that cancer cells may have spread to other lymph nodes or other tissues, such as the liver or lungs. Sometimes cancer of the pancreas spreads to the peritoneum, the tissue that lines the abdomen.

Symptoms of pancreatic cancer
Pancreatic cancer is sometimes called a "silent disease" because early pancreatic cancer often does not cause symptoms. But, as the cancer grows, symptoms may include:

  • Pain in the upper abdomen or upper back
  • Yellow skin and eyes, and dark urine from jaundice
  • Weakness
  • Loss of appetite
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Weight loss

Risk factors for pancreatic cancer
Age: The likelihood of developing pancreatic cancer increases with age. Most pancreatic cancers occur in people over the age of 60.

Smoking: Cigarette smokers are two or three times more likely than nonsmokers to develop pancreatic cancer.

Diabetes: Pancreatic cancer occurs more often in people who have diabetes than in people who do not.

Being male: More men than women are diagnosed with pancreatic cancer.

Being African American: African Americans are more likely than Asians, Hispanics, or whites to get pancreatic cancer.

Family history: The risk for developing pancreatic cancer triples if a person's mother, father, sister, or brother had the disease. Also, a family history of colon or ovarian cancer increases the risk of pancreatic cancer.

Chronic pancreatitis: Chronic pancreatitis is a painful condition of the pancreas. Some evidence suggests that chronic pancreatitis may increase the risk of pancreatic cancer.

Treatment:
The prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options depend on the following:

  • Whether or not the tumor can be removed by surgery.
  • The stage of the cancer (the size of the tumor and whether the cancer has spread outside the pancreas to nearby tissues or lymph nodes or to other places in the body).
  • The patient’s general health.
  • Whether the cancer has just been diagnosed or has recurred (come back).

Contact us for a consultation to discuss the best potential treatment option.

More information can be found on the National Cancer Institute website.

Prostate Cancer

Overview
Cancer that forms in tissues of the prostate (a gland in the male reproductive system found below the bladder and in front of the rectum). Prostate cancer usually occurs in older men.

Signs and symptoms of prostate cancer
A man with prostate cancer may not have any symptoms. For men who do have symptoms, the common symptoms include:

  • Urinary problems
    • Not being able to pass urine
    • Having a hard time starting or stopping the urine flow
    • Needing to urinate often, especially at night
    • Weak flow of urine
    • Urine flow that starts and stops
    • Pain or burning during urination
  • Difficulty having an erection
  • Blood in the urine or semen
  • Frequent pain in the lower back, hips, or upper thighs

Risk factors for prostate cancer
Age over 65: Age is the main risk factor for prostate cancer. The chance of getting prostate cancer increases as you get older. In the United States, most men with prostate cancer are over 65. This disease is rare in men under 45.

Family history: Your risk is higher if your father, brother, or son had prostate cancer.

Race: Prostate cancer is more common among black men than white or Hispanic/Latino men. It's less common among Asian/Pacific Islander and American Indian/Alaska Native men.

Certain prostate changes: Men with cells called high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) may be at increased risk of prostate cancer. These prostate cells look abnormal under a microscope.

Certain genome changes: Researchers have found specific regions on certain chromosomes that are linked to the risk of prostate cancer. According to recent studies, if a man has a genetic change in one or more of these regions, the risk of prostate cancer may be increased. The risk increases with the number of genetic changes that are found. Also, other studies have shown an elevated risk of prostate cancer among men with changes in certain genes, such as BRCA1 and BRCA2.

Treatment
Men with prostate cancer have many treatment options.  The options include active surveillance (also called watchful waiting), surgery, radiation therapy, hormone therapy, and chemotherapy. You may have a combination of treatments.

Contact us for a consultation to discuss the best potential treatment options. To read prostate cancer survivor stories, click here.

More information can be found on the National Cancer Institute website.

Soft Tissue Sarcoma

Overview
Soft tissue sarcoma is a cancer that begins in the muscle, fat, fibrous tissue, blood vessels, or other supporting tissue of the body.

Soft tissue sarcomas can arise almost anywhere in the body, with most occurring in the extremities and in and around organs.

Signs and symptoms of soft tissue sarcoma
A sarcoma may appear as a painless lump under the skin, often on an arm or a leg. Sarcomas that begin in the abdomen may not cause symptoms until they become very large. As the sarcoma grows larger and presses on nearby organs, nerves, muscles, or blood vessels, symptoms may include

  • Pain
  • Trouble breathing

Risk factors of soft tissue sarcoma
External radiation therapy is the most well-established risk factor for soft tissue sarcomas. Patients treated with radiation therapy for cancers of the retina, breast, cervix, ovary, testes, or lymphatic system have a much higher chance of developing soft tissue sarcomas than the general population. The risk appears to be related to the dose of radiation. To limit this risk, radiation treatment for cancer is planned to ensure that the greatest amount of radiation is delivered to diseased tissue while surrounding healthy tissue is protected as much as possible.

Exposure to certain chemicals: Another risk factor for soft tissue sarcomas is exposure to certain chemicals in the workplace, including vinyl chloride, arsenic, herbicides such as phenoxyacetic acids, and wood preservatives that contain chlorophenols.

Chronic lymphedema (a condition in which excess fluid collects in the tissue and causes swelling) following radiation to, or surgical removal of, lymph nodes is also a risk factor.

Certain inherited diseases are associated with an increased risk of developing soft tissue sarcomas. Studies have focused on genetic changes that may lead to the development of soft tissue sarcomas. For example, people with Li-Fraumeni syndrome (associated with alterations in the p53 tumor suppressor gene), von Recklinghausen disease (also called neurofibromatosis type 1 and associated with alterations in the NF1 gene), hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer syndrome (with alterations in the FH gene), and hereditary retinoblastoma (with alterations in the RB1 gene) are at increased risk of developing soft tissue sarcomas.

Treatment
Treatment for soft tissue sarcomas is determined mainly by the stage of the disease. The stage depends on the size of the tumor, the grade, and whether the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes or other parts of the body. The most important component of the stage is the tumor grade (how abnormal the cancer cells look under a microscope and how quickly the tumor is likely to grow and spread). Treatment options for soft tissue sarcomas include surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.

Contact us for a consultation to discuss the best potential treatment option.

More information can be found on the National Cancer Institute website.